Unix is the foundation of most modern operating systems. Because of this, many tools are shared across many operating systems…in some shape or another. Some of the most useful, go-to tools in the unix toolkit include:

ls    list contents of a directory
cd    used t(e)o navigate in and out of directories
rm    destroy a target
cp    copy a target
mv    move an existing target
cat   display the contents of a file
man   display the manual for a given command
mkdir create a new directory
touch create a new file

One of the most powerful features of a unix system is composition, or the ability to combine or chain multiple tools together – feeding the output of one tool into the next. This is usually accomplished with pipes.

ls > banana  sends the output from ls into banana
ls >> banana sends the output from ls into banana without overwriting it
wc < banana  receives input from banana into wc
ls | wc      wire the output from ls into wc (much like > but not for writing to a file)